Gruppo N

The Group N was born in 1959 in Padua as a free association called Ennea. The following year, nine of the original nine members remain: Alberto Biasi, Ennio Chiggio, Toni Costa, Edoardo Landi, Manfredo Massironi, who will name the group N, the first truly anonymous group. Other groups were born earlier: in 1951 in Zagreb Exact 51; Equip 57 in 1957 in Spain and others followed in 1960, Group T in Milan and GRAV in Paris. The Group N had strong innovative ideas in all directions of behavior and design.
The poetic statement presented in 1961 on the occasion of the 12th Lissone Prize is explicit: "The term enne distinguishes a group of" experimental designers "united by the need to collectively research".
The problems it focuses on are visual and kinetic researches, coupled with psychology of perception, aimed at the realization of objects and environments involving the spectator.
By becoming more and more in touch with other artists and groups, Group N will play a prominent role in the European situation. There is no show or conference where it is not in the front line.
Studio Enne, group gallery, was inaugurated in November 1960. In addition to exhibitions of other artists, the most significant signatures of the group in those years are those with closed doors "No one is invited to intervene" and "Against the cult of personality and Of the artistic creation" exhibition of bread by baker Giovanni Zorzon: exposed all kinds of bread, some hanging on the walls like the "useless machines " of Munari. Edible works are real, not worthy of mental value, a neo-dada way to indicate the ephemeral of artistic creation and its individualistic fringes.
Better suicide rather than yield to the fascinating advanced false ideas.
The subsequent teaching events devoted to the "Experimental Music" (an event that has no precedent in Italy), the Amsterdam Regulatory Plan (where the Italian Regulatory Plans are critically considered) and the "Concrete Poetry" place the Group N in a new position compared to the other groups, pointing to its precise will to get out of categorical schemes, to undertake the path of the globality of artistic creation.
In '61, the Group N participated in the big and surprising Nove Tendencije exhibition in Zagreb without critics or other mediators, or even less merchants. The mode of operation was particularly severe and the participation was open only to those researches that shared the method. The "new trends" were a system that did not accept the artist's charismatic and elitist notion, nor the attitude of the art world on the side of criticism and collecting. It deplored the market based on the manipulation of subjects, authors and users, and the mystification of the work. All over Europe, titles were "Cinematography", "Movement", "Visual", "Image Space", "Environnements", "Light", "Monochrome", "New Techniques, New Materials", to the great show at New York's MoMA in 1965,"The Responsive Eye", which celebrated the great success until the arrival of pop art.
Decisive is the participation in the exhibition "Arte Programmata", organized by Olivetti's Advertising Department in May 1962 in Milan, curated by Munari and with the introduction of Umberto Eco, which reads: "programmed art aims to widen contemporary man field of perceptible and enjoyable, with shapes and images always different in kinetic and visual motion".

“Mostra chiusa. Nessuno è invitato ad intervenire.”, Studio N, Padua

“Mostra del pane”, Studio N, Padua
“Mostre a puntate del gruppo enne”, Studio N, Padua
“Bewogen- Beweging”, Stedelijk museum, Amsterdam
“Nove Tendencije 1”, Galleria Suvremene Umjentnosti, Zagreb
“XII Premio Lissone”, Palazzo del Mobile, Lissone

“Arte programmata”, Negozio Olivetti, Milan (itinerant exhibition Rome, Venice, Trieste)
“Antipeinture”, Hessenhuis g 58, Anversa

“Arte Programmata”, Goppinger Galerie, Dusseldorf
“Gruppo N”, Studio F, Ulm
“Nove Tendencije 2”, Galleria Suvremene Umjentnosti, Zagreb
“IV Biennale d’Arte oltre l’Informale”, Palazzo del Kursaal, San Marino
“Oltre la pittura, oltre la scultura”, galleria Cadario, Milan
Galleria La Bussola, Turin

“Nuove Tendenze”, palazzo Querini Stampalia, Venice

“Nouvelle Tendance”, Musèe des Arts Decoratifs, Pavillon du Marsan, Palais du Louvre, Paris
“XXXII Biennale Internazionale d’Arte”, personal room, Venice
“Strutture di visioneXV. Premio Avezzano”, Palazzo Torlonia, Avezzano
“Proposte strutturali, plastiche e sonore”,galleria La Polena,Genoa
“Art in motion, arte programmata”, Royal College of Art, London
“Arte Programmata. Kinetik Art”, Loeb Student Center, New York

“Le Mouvemente 2”, Galerie Denise Renè, Paris

First retrospective exhibition

“Grupa N”, Muzeum Sztuki, Lodz
“Grupa N”, Muzeum Slaskiego, Breslavia

Group Enne exhibition 1965

Galleria la Chiocciola, Padua
“Enne 65”, galleria La Polena, Genoa
Esposizione Internazionale “The Responsive Eye” , MoMA , New York
V Biennale, Paris

Main exhibitions from 1970 to today that recorded the historicized presence of the Group N

“Kinetic”, London

“Arte programmata e cinetica 1953- 1963. L’ultima Avanguardia”, Palazzo Reale, Milan

“Trent’anni dopo.L’avanguardia gestaltica degli anni Sessanta”, Baleri, Milan

“Enne & Zero, motus etc”, Museion, Bolzano
“Arte conetica – Arte programmata 1962”, Galleria Fumagalli, Bergamo
“Opere cinevisuali”, Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna, Rome

“Arte programmata e cinetica in Italia 1958/1968”, Galleria Niccoli, Parma

“Luce, movimento e programmazione. Kinetische Kunst aus Italien. 1958- 1968”, Ulmer museum, Ulm
Stadtische Kunsthalle, Mannheim
Stadtische Museum, Gelsenkirchen, Stadtgalerie, Kiel
Staatliches museum, Schwerin
Alpen-Adria- Galerie, Klagenfurt

“La grande svolta anni ‘60”, Palazzo della Ragione, Padua

“Zero 1958-1968. Tra Germania e Italia”, Palazzo delle Papesse, Siena

“L’oeil Moteur-art optique et cinetique 1950- 1975”, Musèe d’Art Moderne et Contemporain. Strasburgo
“Un secolo d’arte Italiana. Lo sguardo del collezionista. Opere dalla fondazione VAF”, Museo di Arte Moderna e Contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto.

“Lichtkunst aus Kunstlicht”, ZKM, Karlsruhe

“Die Neuen Tendenzen, eine Europaische Kunstlerberwegung”, Museum fur Konkrete Kunst, Ingolstadt

“Op Art”, Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt

Quadriennale d’Arte, Rome